Table of Content 

INDEX : 
1. What is udhiyah ? What does it mean? 
2. Why do muslims celebrate eid ul adha? What is the history of udhiyah or hajj' (briefly)? 
3. Is udhiyah  fardh (obligatory) ? 
4. Who is supposed to offer the sacrifice?
5. Sacrificing on behalf of a deceased (dead) person
6. Sacrificing on behalf of the prophet (s.a.w) 
7.what kind of animals are used for the sacrifice
8.Can we take shares or divide an animal which is to be sacrificed? 
9.qualifications or criteria of the udhiyah (animal) 
10. What if the animal is pregnant? Can we eat the foetus? 
11. Can we sell the sacrificial animal?
12. Can we ride our animal (like cattle or camel etc)?
13. What is the prescribed time for offering the sacrifice?
14. What are the number of days for sacrificing the animal? 
15. What if one slaughters after the day of tashreeq (last day)
16. How should one slaughter the animal? What is the sunnah of sacrificing?
17. Facing the animal towards qiblah is a sunnah
18. Eating the sacrificial meat is a recommended (mustahab) sunnah 
19. Not eating anything until one prays the eid salah is also a sunnah
20. Dividing the meat into 3 parts 
21. Divding/distributing the meat sacrificed on  behalf of the dead
22. Storing the meat is permissible 
23. Giving money instead of a sacrifice is not recommended and is makrooh (disliked)
24. Actions that are haraam 
25. THE RULING OF ABSTAINING FROM CUTTING NAILS AND HAIR APPLIES TO ONLY THE ONE WHO IS GOING TO SACRIFICE OR INTENDS TO SACRIFICE WHETHER HE BE THE HUSBAND OR WIFE. ANYONE WHO WANTS OR INTENDS TO SACRIFICE SEPARATELY FOR HIM OR HER SHOULD ABSTAIN FROM CUTTING AND SHAVING. 
26. Innovations and haraam actions taking place on or during eid 
27. Sunnan to be followed on the day of eid al adha 
28. Eid prayers for women are sunnah or fardh?
29. Ruling on women going for eid salah
30. Answers to some common objections raised 
31. List of weak ahadeeth narrated on this topic. 

 

 

What is Udhiyah ? What does it mean? 


Udhiyah refers to the animal (camel, cattle or sheep) that is sacrificed as an act of worship to Allâh, during the period from after the Eid prayer on the Day of Nahr (Eid al-Adha) until the last day of Tashrîq (the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah), with the intention of offering sacrifice. 

Allâh says: "Say (O Muhammad (sallalahu alaihi wa-sallam)): 'Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allâh, the Lord of the Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists)." [Sûrah al-An'âm (6): 162]


Why do Muslims celebrate Eid ul Adha? What is the History of Udhiyah or Hajj' (Briefly)? 


The Prophet (s.a.w) came to Medina with two days they (the people of madinah) played (celebrated) in. The Prophet   said, ‘What are these two days?’ They said, ‘These are two days we used to play in, in our Jahiliyah.’ The Prophet (s.a.w) said, ‘Allah has replaced them with two better days: Eid Al Adhaa and Eid Al-Fitr’. [Sunan Abu Dawood #1134, 1/675, Narrated Anas Bin Malik]

Note: No other Eid except these two for a Muslim. 


“And for every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies, that they may mention the Name of Allaah over the beast of cattle that He has given them for food. And your God is One God, so you must submit to Him Alone (in Islam)…” [al-Hajj 22:34]



Two of the most important Islamic holidays of the year are Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha. While the former marks the end of the long fasting month of Ramadan, Eid-ul-Adha marks the end of Hajj, the sacred pilgrimage to the holy city Makkah. It's customary for every able Muslim (as prescribed in the Five Pillars of Islam) to go on a Hajj at least once during his lifetime. Also popularly known as the Festival of Sacrifice, this Muslim holiday Eid-ul-Adha commemorates Prophet Abraham's unselfish act of sacrificing his own son Ishmael to the One God, Allah.



The history behind Eid-ul-Adha follows the story of the faithful Abraham, who was instructed by Allah in a dream to raise the foundations of Kaaba, a black stone, the most sacred Muslim shrine in Mecca (Saudi Arabia), which the Muslims face during their prayers (salat). Immediately responding to the Lord's call, Abraham set off for Mecca along with his wife and son, Ishmael. At that time, Mecca was a desolate and barren desert and Abraham had to face a lot of hardships. However, he supplicated Allah's commands uncomplaining. In a divine dream, he also saw himself sacrificing his son Ishmael for Allah's sake. When he told this to Ishmael, the latter immediately asked his father to carry out Lord's commands without faltering and assured that he was completely ready to give up his life for God. But miraculously enough, when Abraham was about to sacrifice Ishmael, Allah spared the boy's life and replaced him with a lamb. And this is what Abraham ultimately sacrificed.



To commemorate this outstanding act of sacrifice (qurbani) by Prophet Abraham, people sacrifice a lamb, goat, ram or any other animal on Eid-ul-Adha and give the meat to friends, neighbors, relatives and the needy. People who are away from the holy pilgrimage, Hajj, also carry out this traditional sacrifice. Hence Eid-ul-Adha is also known as the Feast of Sacrifice or the Day of Sacrifice.



Allah says ‘It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allaah, but it is piety from you that reaches Him.’ (Sura Hajj verse 37) 

In fact, sacrificing for the sake of Allah, or to draw one self close to god is not something alien to Islam. all the religions have this. Also in Islam, sacrificing as a means of drawing closer to Allah began right from the time during the sons of Adam (`alayhis salaam). 


And recite to them the story of Adam’s two sons, in truth, when they both offered a sacrifice [to Allah], and it was accepted from one of them but was not accepted from the other. Said [the latter], “I will surely kill you.” Said [the former], “Indeed, Allah only accepts from those who have taqwa (27) If you should raise your hand against me to kill me – I shall not raise my hand against you to kill you. Indeed, I fear Allah, Lord of the worlds. (28) Indeed I want you to obtain [thereby] my sin and your sin so you will be among the companions of the Fire. And that is the recompense of wrongdoers.” (29) And his soul permitted to him the murder of his brother, so he killed him and became among the losers. (30) Then Allah sent a crow searching in the ground to show him how to hide the disgrace of his brother. He said, “O woe to me! Have I failed to be like this crow and hide the body of my brother?” So he became of the regretful. [5:27-31]

So this is not something " alien" 


Imam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) said: "The most excellent day of the week is the day of Jumu'ah (Friday), by the agreement of the Scholars. And the most excellent day of the year is the day of Nahr. And some of them said that it is the day of 'Arafah. However, the first opinion is the correct one, since it is related in the Sunan collections that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said: "The most excellent days with Allah is the day of an-Nahr (i.e Eid ul Adha when the blood of the animal flows) , then the day of al-Qarr (the day that the Muslims reside in Mina).

[Ref: Saheeh: Related by Abu Dawud (no.1765), from 'Abdullah ibn Qart R. It was authenticated by al-Albani in Irwaa' ul-Ghalil (no.2018). Also see Majmu' Fatawa (25/288). ]

The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said : "The greatest day of the Hajj (Pilgrimage) is the Day of Nahr (Slaughtering)"

[Ref: Saheeh: Related by Abu Dawud (no 1945), from Ibn 'Umar R. It was authenticated by al- Albani in al-lrwa' (no.1101).]

IS UDHIYAH  FARDH (OBLIGATORY) OR SUNNAH? 


Scholars differ concerning the ruling of Udhiyah, some are of the opinion that Udhiyah is wâjib or obligatory while others hold Udhiyah as a confirmed Sunnah. 

The First Opinion : Wajib or Obligatory 



Among those who uphold the first opinion (wâjib or obligatory) are Imâm al-Awzâ'i, Imâm al-Layth and Imâm Abu Hanîfah, and it is one of the two opinions narrated from Imâm Ahmad. It was also the opinion of Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, and is one of the two opinions in the mathhab of Imâm Mâlik. Those who favor this opinion (of considering udhiyah to be obligatory) take the following as evidence:



 Allâh says:"Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only)." [Sûrah al-Kawthar 108:2]



This verse is a command and a command implies obligation. Also, it is repeated in the Sahîhayn (i.e. Sahîh al-Bukharî and Sahîh Muslim) from Jundub (radhi allahu anhu),



"The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: "Whoever slaughtered his sacrifice before he prays, let him slaughter another one in its place, and whoever did not slaughter a sacrifice, let him do so in the name of Allâh." [Sahîh Muslim vol. 3, no: 4818-21]



And: 



"Whoever can afford to offer a sacrifice but does not do so, let him not approach our place or prayer." [Musnad Ahmad and Ibn Majah. (Sahîh) by al-Hâkim (from Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu)), it is related in Fath al-Barî that its men are thiqât. This Hadîth is declared Hasan (Good) by Shaikh al-Albanî in Sahîh Sunan Ibn Majah v: 2, no: 2532-1323] 





It was narrated from 'Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-As that the Messenger of Allah said to a man "I have been instructed to take the Day of Sacrifice as an 'Id which Allah, the Might and Sublime, has ordained for this Ummah." The man said: "What do you think if I cannot find anything but a female sheep that has been loaned to me so that I may benefit from its milk - should I sacrifice it?" He said: "No. Rather cut something from your hair and your nails, trim your mustache and shave your pubic hairs, and you will have a complete reward with Allah, the Might and Sublime, as if you had offered the sacrifice."

[Ref: An Nasai(The Book of ad-Dahaya (Sacrifices) - 5)]
 



Some more reports which could support this view :



It was narrated from al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever offers a sacrifice after the prayer has completed his rituals (of Eid) and has followed the way of the Muslims.” [Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5545]

It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stayed in Madeenah for ten years, offering sacrifice (every year on Eid).” [Narrated by Ahmad, 4935; al-Tirmidhi, 1507; classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh, 1475]

The Second Opinion - sunnah e mua'kkadah : Those who assert to the second opinion of it being a Sunnah (sunnah muakkadah) say: 

i.e. Udhiyah is a confirmed Sunnah (meaning Sunnah mu'akkadah) are the better-known opinion of Mâlik and Imâm Ahmad, and the mathhab of al-Shâfa'î. It should be mentioned here that majority of the scholars uphold this view, and they state it Makrûh (disliked) to neglect this act of worship, if one has the capability to perform a sacrifice. [Rasâ'il Fiqhiyyah by Shaykh Ibn 'Uthaymîn, p. 46 and also see page 320, Vol 4 of fataawa islamiyyah sheikh bin baz 



This opinion is based on the following Ahâdîth. Jâbir (radhi allahu anhu), narrated:

"I prayed on Eid al-Adha with the Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), and when he finished (the prayer), he was brought one ram, and he sacrificed it. He (s.a.w) said: "In the Name of Allâh, Allâh is Most Great. This is on behalf of myself and any member of my Ummah who did not offer a sacrifice." [Awnul M'abûd Sharh Sunan Abî Dâwûd by Muhammad Shams al-Haq 'Adhîm آbâdi, vol. 8, pp. 3-6] 

And the Hadeeth reported by all the famous Muhaddithîn apart from al-Bukharî that the Messenger of Allâh (s.a.w) said



"Whoever among you wants to offer a sacrifice, let him not take anything from his hair or nails."  [Sahîh Muslim vol. 3 nos. 4869-73] 

Another such hadeeth says : 

Imam Al Tirmidhi has recoreded this hadeeth under the Chapter "Chapter on the sacrifices from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w)" , Title : The Evidence that Udhiyah is a  Sunnah" He narrates :


That a man asked Ibn 'Umar about the Udhiyah, "Is it obligatory?" So he said: "The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) performed the Udhiyah as did the Muslims." He repeated the question. So he said: "Do you understand ?" The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) slaughtered as did the Muslims." [Da'eef by Zubair Ali Za'ee and Albaani] 

Sunnah of Abu Bakr (r.a) and 'Umar (r.a) shows that it is not fardh: 

عن أبي سريحة الغفاري قال ما أدركت أبا بكر أو رأيت أبا بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما كانا لا يضحيان في بعض حديثهم كراهية أن يقتدى بهما

Rough Translation: 

Abu Sa'eed Gaffari (r.a) said "I saw/lived during Abu bakr and Umar may allah be pleased with them. They did not sacrifice (during Eid) fearing that the people may follow them (if they do thinking that sacrificing is fardh) 

[Ref: See Irwa ul Ghaleel 4/355 : Isnaad Sahih, Also See Ibn Katheer's Irshaad al Faqeeh 1/352 : Isnaad Jayyid and Sunan Al Bayhiqi 9/265 hadith: 19511]

Another hadeeth coming from a Tab'aeen :

عن أبي مسعودٍ الأنصاريِّ رضي اللهُ عنهُ قال إني لأدعُ الأضحَى وإنِّي لمُوسرٌ مخافةَ أن يرَى جيراني أنهُ حَتْمٌ عليَّ

abu masu'd (r.h) said : i did not do sacrifice and i am wealthy; fearing that my neighbour would think it is wajib 

[Ref: See Irwa ul Ghaleel 4/355, Sunan Al Bayhiqi 9/265 hadith: 19512 ]
 
For more details on this hadeeth visit : http://www.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=1903&idto=1904&bk_no=93&ID=1056


Under this hadeeth Abu Eesa (Al Tirmidhi) said : This hadeeth is Hasan Sahih. This is acted upon according to the people of knowledge that the Udhiyah is not obligatory, but it is Sunnah among the Sunan of the Prophet (s.a.w) which is recommended to perform. This is the view of Sufyan Al Thawri and Ibn Al-Mubarak 

Also Imam Malik said  "The sacrifice is sunna, and it is not obligatory. I prefer that anyone who has the price of the animal should not abandon it.'' [Muwatta Malik : Baab Sacrificial Animals : Book 23, Hadith 13]
 

Summary :


Shaikh Ibn Uthaymîn (rahimahullah) following his discussion of those who say it is obligatory and those who say it is a Sunnah and said,



"Each point of view has its evidence. It is safe for the one who is able to offer a sacrifice should not neglect to do so, because of what is involved in this act of reverence towards Allâh, remembering Him, and making sure that one has nothing to be blamed for.""

Ibn Qudaamah (r.h) comments on the below hadeeth :

"When the ten (days of Thul-Hijjah) enter, and he has an adh-hiyah that he wishes to slaughter, then do not let him take anything from his hair, and do not let him trim his nails."

Ibn Qudaamah said, "So he (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam) made it something relative to a person's own wishes, and a waajib is not something relative to the wishes of a person..."

Meaning that his statement, "...and he has an adh-hiyah that he wishes to slaughter..." indicates that it is something optional and not obligatory.

Ibn Qudaamah further went on to say that the hadeeth of Ibn Maajah should be understood as a confirmation for the recommended nature of the slaughter, but not a proof for it being an obligation. [See al-Mughnee, 13/360-361]

And this is based upon an established principle in Usool al-Fiqh that a text that is understood to make something waajib or haraam by itself can be refined by another text, and thus the weight of the order or prohibition is lessened and understood to be for recommendation or discouragement, and Allaah knows best.

Furthermore, the scholars have mentioned that it is a fardh kifaayah, like Hajj, meaning that some people have to perform it in each land so that the worhsip of Allaah and His Remembrance in a place where Hajj is not seen is visible on that great day. (See Fataawaa Shaykh al-Islaam, 23/162-163)

Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Udhiyah is Sunnah mu’akkadah for the one who is able to do it, so a person should offer the sacrifice on behalf of himself and the members of his household.”

[Ref: Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 2/661.]

Also Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: There is nothing in the shar’i evidence to indicate that it (i.e. the udhiyah) is obligatory. The view that it is obligatory is a weak view.
[Ref: Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Baaz, 18/36]




I (Author of this article) Say : 



First of All, Udhiyah is not mandatory for those who cannot afford to offer a sacrifice because of the hadeeth mentioned above wherein the prophet (s.a.w) said  "Whoever can afford to offer a sacrifice but does not do so, let him not approach our place or prayer." Also Hajj is also an obligatory act except when one does not have the finance or means to do it and thus in this particular aspect or angle it is similar is the case of Udhiyah 



But now that we are aware of the hadeeth and the fear of abu bakr (r.a) and the salaaf who did no sacrifice on purpose out of fear that people might consider udhiyah being mandatory is gone. And hence for those who can afford it then i find the correct opinion more inclined towards the udhiyah being highly highly recommended (but not fardh) upon them because : 



1) The saying of the prophet (s.a.w) " Whoever wishes to offer a sacrifice" does not make it optional for the one who can afford it because this saying is similar to the saying " whoever wishes to offer prayer let him wash/do wudoo'. Now we know prayer mandatory but if someone takes the saying "whoever wishes to pray" to show that it is sunnah, then this is a wrong opinon. Another point to explain this is the saying of the prophet (s.a.w) "Whoever wants to make Hajj then let him hasten for indeed a thing may deviate him from it and a need may prevent him from performing it" 

[Reported by Ahmad (1/213,323,355) Ibn Maajah (3883). Aboo Nu'aim in Hilyah (1/114) from al-Fadl. There is a weakness in it's isnaad. However the hadeeth has been found via another chain of narration with Aboo Daawood (1732), ad- Daarimee(2/28), al-Haakim (1/448), Ahmad (1/225) but that too has a weakness. Nevertheless because of all these asaaneed the hadeeth becomes hasan, inshaAllaah. Refer to Irwaa al-Ghaleel  (4/168-169).] 



2) Don't we leave enough sunnan in our day to day lives? in fact more than enough. Why do we need to make or find an excuse to leave the sacrifice based on a doubtful stance/opinion when we can easily afford it? We buy optional watches and shoes and etc, yet we go around arguing and  debating if udhiyah is sunnah or fardh. Strange !!




WHO IS SUPPOSED TO OFFER THE SACRIFICE?



The basic rule of Udhiyah is that sacrifice is required at an appointed time from one who is alive, either on behalf of himself and on behalf of his household (both alive and dead). If during his sacrifice he intends the reward of this charity to reach his dead parents, relatives, Muslims, then this is permissible and mustahhab.

It is from the Sunnah that one includes his household during sacrifice. So, when he slaughters his sheep, he should say, "Bismillah Allahu Akbar Allaahumma haatha 'annee wa 'an ahli baytee" meaning "O Allah! This is on my behalf and on behalf of my family members." 

It is from the virtues of Udhiyah that one animal is sufficient for one man and his family; he is not required to make separate sacrifices on behalf of every member (living or dead). Narrated Abu Ayyub: "At the time of Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), a man would sacrifice a sheep on behalf of himself and the members of his household, and they would eat from it and give some to others." [Sunan Ibn Majah v: 4, no: 3147. (Saheeh) by Shaikh al-Albanee in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Majah v: 2, no: 2546] [also, see previously mentioned Hadeeth reported by Jaabir (radhi allahu anhu) (Abu Dawood)] 

SACRIFICING ON BEHALF OF A DECEASED (DEAD) PERSON

if he has bequeathed up to one third of his wealth for the purpose of sacrifice or included it in his waqf (endowment), then his wishes must be carried out. Otherwise, offering sacrifice on behalf of the deceased is permissible and a good deed and it is considered to be giving charity on behalf of the dead.


Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

The basic principle concerning the udhiyah is that it is prescribed for the living, as the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his companions used to offer the sacrifice on behalf of themselves and their families. With regard to what some of the common folk think, that the sacrifice may be offered separately on behalf of the dead, there is no basis for that. 

Udhiyah on behalf of the dead may be of three types: 

1 – When it is offered on their behalf as well as on behalf of the living, such as when a man offers a sacrifice on behalf of himself and the members of his  family, and intends thereby both those who are alive and those who are dead. This is permissible, and the basis of that is the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) offered the sacrifice on behalf of himself and the members of his family, some of whom had previously died. 

2 – Offering the sacrifice on behalf of the dead in fulfillment of their last wishes (wasaaya/will) is is obligatory except in the case of one who is unable to do it(due to financial constraints or similar circumstances). The basis for this is the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

Then whoever changes the bequest (will) after hearing it, the sin shall be on those who make the change. Truly, Allaah is All-Hearer, All-Knower”

[al-Baqarah 2:181] 

3 – Offering the sacrifice on behalf of the dead voluntarily and independently of the living – such as offering a separate sacrifice on behalf of one's father or mother. This is permissible. The Hanbali fuqaha’ have stated that the reward for that will reach the deceased and benefit him, by analogy with giving charity on behalf of the dead. 

But we (Shaykh Uthaymeen and he is also referring to some scholars who agree with him on this point) do not think that singling out the dead for offering a sacrifice on their behalf is part of the Sunnah, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not offer a sacrifice specifically on behalf of any of his deceased loved ones. He did not offer a sacrifice on behalf of his paternal uncle Hamzah even though he was one of his dearest relatives, or on behalf of his children who died during his lifetime, who were three married daughters and three sons who died in infancy, or on behalf of his wife Khadeejah who was one of his most beloved wives. And it is not narrated that any of his companions offered a sacrifice on behalf of any of their deceased loved ones seperately (without having a will/wasaaya of that deceased person wherein he asked for a sacrifice to be made on his behalf after his death as well). 

[Risaalat Ahkaam al-Udhiyah wa’l-Dhakaah]

To summarize the above points for clearer understanding :



An individual slaughters specifically and exclusively on behalf of a deceased individual without including his living family in the intention or having any will upon that from the deceased; this issue is the point of discussion between the people of knowledge.

Shaikh ibn ul-Uthaymeen states that it has not been evidenced from the Salaf-us-Salih that they ever slaughtered seperately and exclusively for a deceased individual in this manner (excluding their own family members on eid al adha), rather the correct way is to slaughter normally having the intention of the reward for yourself and your living and present household and also for the deceased members of your family to receive the reward too, such as the father or mother or etc. Although the Shaikh does not say that doing it exclusively and seperately is haraam or an innovation per say, but instead states it is better to stick to the Sunnah as it has been evidenced.

Some scholars have stated however that perhaps slaughtering on behalf of the deceased exclusively (separately) could be viewed as a form of charity, or at the very least be comparable to charity and therefore permissible, although Shaikh ibn ul-Uthaymeen states in that case it is a stronger act to simply give in charity rather than opting for an alternative action that is only “comparable” and not the same.

To learn how to benefit the dead according to what the prophet taught us,  visit : http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2012/07/how-to-benefit-the-dead.html


This is an article by brother syed asif who has summarized the above + more hanabila fatwa on this issue showing how ibn taymiyyah, ibn mubarak and some have permitted sacrificing on behalf of the dead : https://returntoislam.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/sacrifice-for-deceased-is-permissible.pdf


SACRIFICING ON BEHALF OF THE PROPHET (S.A.W) 

The Prophet (s.a.w) automatically gets the same reward of the sacrifice of each and every Muslim because Allaah guided us to Sharee’ah by him. Every good act that a Muslim does, the Prophet  gets the same reward like him. However, –as far as we know –the Prophet  did not legislate to us to offer a separate sacrifice on his behalf for his Ummah. Furthermore, it is not reported with a good chain of narrators –as far as we know –from the companions (who loved and respected him a million times more than us) that they used to offer a sacrifice on his behalf. 

WHAT KIND OF ANIMALS ARE USED FOR THE SACRIFICE

The word udhiyah means an animal of the ‘an’aam class (i.e., camel, cow, sheep or goat)  thus the animals prescribed for Udhiyah are camels, cattle and sheep (or goat) (irrespective of their gender)

It was narrated in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (5558) and Saheeh Muslim (1966) that Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sacrificed two white rams speckled with black. He slaughtered them with his own hand, said ‘Allaahu akbar’ and put his foot on their necks(while slaughtering so as to prevent the animal from shaking alot)  .” 



Muslim (1318) narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: In the year of al-Hudaybiyah we offered the sacrifice with the Messenger of Allaah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), a camel on behalf of seven and a cow on behalf of seven. 

Some of the scholars said that the best sacrifice is camels, then cattle, then sheep, then a share in a she-camel or cow, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said concerning Friday prayers: “Whoever goes to [Friday prayers] early, it is equivalent to him sacrificing a camel.” This is the opinion of the three imaams Abu Haneefah, al-Shaafa'i and Ahmad. On this basis, a sheep is better than one-seventh of a camel or cow. Maalik said that the best is a young sheep, then a cow then a camel, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sacrificed two rams, and he never did anything but that which was the best. The response to that is that he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) always chose what was more appropriate out of kindness towards his ummah, because they would follow his example, and he did not want to make things difficult for them. (Fataawa al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz).


Note: In certain countries like India, the cow is taken as a divine god or godly form. Many riots have broken out time and again due to the issue of Muslims slaughtering cows , therefore it is legally banned in India to do so for eid al-adha. Only government owned institutes can do it after passing the requirement and protocols set. 

So instead of having your village, shops, fellow Muslims and friends burned or harmed, it is not only wise but also preferable that Muslims avoid slaughtering cows in regions like India.  This is also the fatwa of Dar al-Uloom Deobandh as well as other `ulema in makkah whom i have spoken to such as shaykh maqsood al-hasan and others who favoured this view for the greater safety of Muslims. 




CAN WE TAKE SHARES OR DIVIDE AN ANIMAL WHICH IS TO BE SACRIFICED? 



This practice in the Indian/Pakistani region is called as "Hissa lena" meaning " taking shares or participating" 


"The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) commanded us to share camels and cattle, each seven men sharing one animal." [Saheeh Muslim v: 2, p. 662, no. 3024] 


Sayyidina lbn Abbas (RA) reported: We were with Allah’s Messenger (s.a.w) on a journey. The (eid) al-Adha came upon us. So we shared, seven in a cow and ten in a camel. [Jaami' at-Tirmidhi , Book on Hajj, Vol. 2, Book 4, Hadith 905 or 1506; Sunan al-Nasa'eei 4404 ,ibn majah 3131,musnad ahmed 2484, Saheeh by Albaane in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi 1501; Hassan by Ibn Hajar in Takhreej Mishkat al Masaabeh 2/132; Ibn Mulqin also classified all the narrators to be trustworthy in Badr al-Muneer 9/304]

The above two narrations show that the max limit to share in a camel is 10 and for a cow and buffalo  it is 7



Note: If a sheep, a goat or a ram is offered for Udhiyah, then sharing  with non-family members is not allowed, since no evidence is found in the Sunnah for it. So a man may slaughter one sheep on behalf of himself and his family, or he may join six others and share the slaughter in a camel or a cow (not sheep/ram/goat), intending his part to be for himself and his family, and Allaah knows best.  This is for non-obligatory slaughters, like the Adh'hiyah (for those who do not go for Hajj).

As for the obligatory slaughters (i.e for those who are amidst their Hajj), then there exists ijmaa' (scholarly concensus) that a sheep (or cattle) may not be shared at all (at-Tamheed, 10/315). 

Is one sacrifice sufficient for a family?

Ans : Yes,


It is from the virtues of Udhiyah that one animal is sufficient for one man and his family; he is not required to make separate sacrifices on behalf of every member (living or dead). Narrated Abu Ayyub: "At the time of Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), a man would sacrifice a sheep on behalf of himself and the members of his household, and they would eat from it and give some to others." [Sunan Ibn Majah v: 4, no: 3147. (Saheeh) by Shaikh al-Albanee in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Majah v: 2, no: 2546] [also, see previously mentioned Hadeeth reported by Jaabir (radhi allahu anhu) (Abu Dawood)]

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ مُوسَى قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ الحَنَفِيُّ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا الضَّحَّاكُ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي عُمَارَةُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ عَطَاءَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ يَقُولُ: سَأَلْتُ أَبَا أَيُّوبَ الأَنْصَارِيَّ: كَيْفَ كَانَتِ الضَّحَايَا عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ؟ فَقَالَ: «كَانَ الرَّجُلُ يُضَحِّي بِالشَّاةِ عَنْهُ وَعَنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ، فَيَأْكُلُونَ وَيُطْعِمُونَ حَتَّى تَبَاهَى النَّاسُ، فَصَارَتْ كَمَا تَرَى» 



Yahya related to me from Malik from Umara ibn Yasar that Ata ibn Yasar told him that abu ayyub al-Ansari had told him, "We used to sacrifice one sheep, and a man sacrificed for himself and his family. Then later on people began to compete with each other and it became boasting (wherein people started slaughtering more than one animal per house)

[Muwatta Malik, Book #23, Hadith #23.5.10; Sunan Tirmidhi, hadith 1505, Saheeh by Muhadditheen, e.g Saheeh at-Tirmidhi 1505 ]


 Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said in al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (5/275):

There is no limit to how many people may share in the reward. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) offered a sacrifice on behalf of his entire ummah, and a man may offer a single sheep on behalf of himself and the members of his household, even if they are one hundred strong. End quote.


The Standing Committee was asked: There are twenty-two people in this family, and they have one income and one budget. On Eid al-Adha they offer a single sacrifice, and I do not know whether that is sufficient or whether they should offer two sacrifices? 


They replied:

If the family is big but they live in one house, one sacrifice is sufficient for them, but if they offer more than one sacrifice, that is better. End quote.

[Ref: Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 11/408. ]

For more fataawas of salaf on this see : http://www.islam-qa.com/en/45916

Here is a video (in Urdu) by Shaykh Abu Zaid Zameer (h.f) on this topic. Video is titled as " Ek Ghar mai har shaks ko Qurbani karna hai kya?" : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p4OCl7MfeVg


QUALIFICATIONS OR CRITERIA OF THE UDHIYAH (ANIMAL) 

1. The animal should have reached the required (completed) age, which is six months (completed) for a lamb (sheep), one year (completed) for a goat, two years (completed) for a cow and five years (completed) for a camel.

To see evidences for the age of the goat and sheep in detail with ahadeeth please visit : http://www.islamqa.info/en/ref/41899

http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=85411



It was narrated from ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) shared out sacrificial animals amongst his companions, and ‘Uqbah got a sheep that was six months old. He said, “O Messenger of Allaah, I got a sheep that is six months old.” He said, “Offer it as a sacrifice.” [Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5547]


2. The Animal should be free from the following faults (defects):


the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are four that will not do for sacrifice: a one-eyed animal whose defect is obvious, a sick animal whose sickness is obvious, a lame animal whose limp is obvious and an emaciated animal that has no marrow in its bones .” (Saheeh, Saheeh al-Jaami’, no. 886, Sunan Al Nasa'ee Book 44, Hadith 4388)


'Ali said: "Messenger of Allah forbade us from sacrificing an animal with a broken horn." I (the narrator) mentioned that to Sa'eed bin Al Musayyab and he said: "Yes,  unless half or more of the horn is missing."(Sunan Al Nisa'ee, Book 44, Hadith 4394,Hasan)




 

Narrated Qatadah:I asked Sa'id b. al-Musayyab: What is meant by animal with a slit ear and broken horn ? He replied: Half and more than half.[Sunan Abi Dawud 2806]



 

It was narrated that 'Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said:"The Messenger of Allah commanded us to examine the eyes and ears (of animals), and not to sacrifice and animals with its ears slit from the front, and animal with its ears slit form the back (in another narration : an animals with its ears slit lengthwise) , a animal with its tail cut, nor an animals with a round hole in its ear."( Sunan Al Nasa'ee Arabic : Book 44, Hadith 4389, 4392 Hasan)

 



Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib:The Apostle of Allah (s.a.w ) enjoined upon us to pay great attention to the eye and both ears, and not to sacrifice a one-eyed animal, and an animal with a slit which leaves something hanging at the front or back of the ear, or with a lengthwise slit with a perforation (abnormality) in the ear. I asked AbuIshaq: Did he mention an animal with broken horns and uprooted ears? He said: No. I said: 'What is the Muqabalah ?' He replied: 'It has been cut from the back of its ear.' I said: 'What about the Sharqa'? He replied: 'The ear has been split.' I said: 'What about the Kharqa'? He replied: 'A hole is made (in its ears) as a distinguishing mark.'"[Sunan Abi Dawud 2804]


Another chain from 'Ali, from the Prophet (s.a.w) and it is similar, but he added: "The Muqabalah is the one whose ears have been severed, the Mudabarah is the one with the sides of its ears cut off, and the Sharqa' is one with its ears split, and the Khurqa' is the one whose ears have a hole pierced through them." [Jami 'at-Tirmidhi 1498,Imam Tirmidhi said this is Hassan Saheeh, Shaikh Zubair Ali Zaee graded it Hasan] 


Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: The Prophet (s.a.w) prohibited to sacrifice an anim
al with a slit ear and broken horn [In some versions the arabic word 'Adbaa' is translated as mutilated instead of broken]. [Sunan Abi Dawud 2805 - Graded as Hasan by Shaikh Zubair Alee Zaee' who said under the commentary of this hadeeth that the ear or horn which has been cut severely / damaged or the ear/horn has been cut/broken internally is what is meant by this hadeeth. Another narration is found in Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1504]


Therefore If the animal has the following traits, it is forbidden to use it as Udhiyah: 


1. One eye or Blindness


2. A sick animal whose sickness is obvious, 

3. a lame animal whose limp is obvious

4. an emaciated (extremely weak or unhealthy) animal that has no marrow in its bones

5. Half or more than Half of the horn is broken, damaged or Missing (Note : less than Half is also Makrooh)

6. Ears slit from front, back, length-wise, or a hole in the ear


7. Tail being cut off 

There are milder defects that do not disqualify an animal, but it is makrooh (disliked) to sacrifice such animals, such as 

- Whiteness of the eye

- Slight lameness where the animal cannot catch up with the herd.

- An internal disease that does not affect the amount of meat or render it bad.

- Missing less than half of the horn or ear, or a punctured or slit ear, other similar minor deformities and etc.


Udhiyah is an act of worship to Allaah, and Allaah is Good and accepts only that which is good. Whoever honours the rites of Allaah, this has to do with the piety (taqwa) of the heart.

Note : Castrated goats/sheeps (called as Khassi in Mumbai or most parts of India /Pakistan or chelee in Hyderabad ) are allowed to be sacrificed. Some people object to this and their object is answered below under the title " Reply to some objections" 



WHAT IF THE ANIMAL IS PREGNANT? CAN WE EAT THE FOETUS? 



The majority of scholars are of the view that pregnancy is not a deficiency that makes the sacrifice impermissible.  So it is permissible to offer a sacrifice with a pregnant animal although the Shaafi'ee school considers it as impermissible. Their view is that pregnancy spoils the stomach and weakens the animal, and the purpose of the sacrifice is (also) to get more meat. However, the view of the majority of scholars is more correct since the Shaafi'ee school lacks evidence to support their view in the eyes of other madhaahib or scholars.


As regards the ruling about the foetus whether or not it is permissible to eat: 

- if the foetus is not completely shaped, eating it is not permissible. 

- It is also not permissible to eat it if it was completely shaped but known to be dead before its mother was slaughtered. 

There is no difference of opinion on the above points.

Nonetheless, if the foetus comes out alive, it will not become permissible to eat unless it is slaughtered as it is a separate soul and therefore it must be slaughtered according to Islamic rites. However, if the foetus comes out dead after the slaughter of its mother and it is known that the completely developed foetus  died only because of the slaughtering of the mother then it is permissible to eat it according to the majority of the jurists and the hadeeth which says : 


The Prophet  said: "The slaughtering of a pregnant animal is enough to make eating its foetus permissible." 

or in another word 

"On the Authority of Jaabir (Radhiallaahu Anhu) who said the Prophet (Sallaahu alayhee Wasallam) said, “The slaugtering/sacrifice of a Pregnant animal also includes the slaughtering/sacrifice of its womb” . (Ahmad, Sunan abee Dawood 2/34-35 no.2828, Sunan Tirmidhee 1/178 no.1476) 


Narrated AbuSa'id al-Khudri: 
I asked the Apostle of Allah (s.a.w) about the embryo. He replied: Eat it if you wish. 

Musaddad's version says: we said: Apostle of Allah, we slaughter a she-camel, a cow and a sheep, and we find an embryo in its womb. Shall we throw it away or eat it? He replied: Eat it if you wish for the slaughter of its mother serves its slaughter. [Sunan Abi Dawood 2827 -Saheeh]




CAN WE SELL THE SACRIFICIAL ANIMAL?

It is forbidden to sell it. If an animal has been selected for sacrifice, it is not permissible to sell it or give it away, except in exchange for one that is better.

CAN WE RIDE OUR ANIMAL (like cattle or camel etc)?

It is also permissible to ride it (except weak animals like sheep etc) if necessary. The evidence for this is the report narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim ( vol: 2, no: 3046 ) from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw a man leading his camel and told him, “Ride it.” He said, “It is for sacrifice.” He said, “Ride it” a second or third time.

Note: riding is only permissible on animals that can bear it. We see many children hurting and harming the goats or sheeps by sitting on them and pressurizing them. Sheep and goats are not created as beasts used for travelling like buffalo, camel, horses and etc. The prophet (s.a.w) has forbidden having animals fight, hosting competitions as is the norm today with our kids, or using them as  target practise and many other actions. Please see Animal rights only in Islam : http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.in/2012/09/animal-rights-in-islam.html


WHAT IS THE PRESCRIBED TIME FOR OFFERING THE SACRIFICE?



The animal can be sacrificed only after the Eid prayer and the Khutbah (and not when the Khutbah or the prayer starts) and this sacrifice is valid or can be done until before the sunset of the last day of Tashreeq (last day of sacrificing), which according to one opinion is 12th and according to other is 13th Dhul-Hijjah. Considering the latter opinion this would mean that one can sacrifice his animal or animals starting from the day of Eid Al Adha - after the khutbah/prayer until the sunset of the last day of Tahreeq which is the 13th Dhil Hajj or the 4th day of Eid (including the day of eid)


. This difference of opinion in the days of tashreeq (3 or 4) is discussed in detail under the title "Answers to some objections" below


The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: "Whoever sacrifices before the prayer, let him repeat it." [Saheeh Muslim vol: 3, p. 1084, no: 4818] 



WHAT ARE THE NUMBER OF DAYS FOR SACRIFICING THE ANIMAL? 

Apparently in the Indian subcontinent people are accustomed to the concept that : Sacrificing is done only on 

- The day of Eid and
- The 2 days after it 

Thereby making the sacrifice of Eid al Adha valid only for 3 days in total.   

However, according to some narrations, practice of the salaf and the madhahib (maslaks) of different Imams,the differing views are enlisted below :

1. There are two different opinions on this topic. One which vouches for the opinion of 3 days only which is the stronger opinion and the other which validates the 4 day opinion which comparatively is a weaker opinion or an opinion of the minority of scholars.

2.Both these opinions will be discussed in detail under the title "Answer to some Objections" below 

Conclusion : The sunnah is to sacrifice on the very first day i.e the day of Eid ul Adha itself but due to the difference among scholars, one could choose to sacrifice either until the fourth day or the third day but the opinion of the third day is stronger backed by stronger proofs whereas the narrations that speak in favor of 4 days are weak and disputed over except with few narrations from the Taba`een.  This is discussed below [See Question no. 3 under the title "Answer to some objections"] 

WHAT IF ONE SLAUGHTERS AFTER THE DAY OF TASHREEQ


Whoever slaughters his sacrifice before the Eid prayer is over, or after the sun sets on the thirteenth, his sacrifice is not valid because of the hadeeth of the prophet (s.a.w) wherein he said  "Whoever slaughtered his sacrifice before he prays, let him slaughter another one in its place, and whoever did not slaughter a sacrifice, let him do so in the name of Allâh." [Sahîh Muslim vol. 3, no: 4818-21] 
 
Some of the scholars say : But if he has an excuse for delaying it until after the days of al-tashreeq, such as if the animal ran away with no negligence on his part, and he did not find it until after the time was over, or if he delegated someone to do it on his behalf and his deputy forgot until the time was over, then there is nothing wrong with offering the sacrifice after the time has ended, because there is an excuse, by analogy with the fact that one who sleeps and misses a prayer or forgets it should offer the prayer as soon as he wakes up or remembers it and this is what has been summarized from the fataawas of scholars.


HOW SHOULD ONE SLAUGHTER THE ANIMAL? WHAT IS THE SUNNAH OF SACRIFICING?



1. Sharpening one's blade : The prophet (s.a.w) said “Verily, Allaah has prescribed excellence in all things. Thus, if you kill, kill in a kind manner. If you slaughter, slaughter in a kind manner. Each of you should sharpen his blade and spare suffering to the animal he is slaughtering.” [Sahih Muslim, Riyad Al Saaliheen]


It is authentically reported from `Abdullah ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) who said that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) passed by a man who was putting HIS LEG ON THE FACE OF A GOAT while he was sharpening his blade and THE GOAT WAS LOOKING AT HIM while he was doing that. Then he (peace be upon him) said: YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE THIS BEFORE. DO YOU WANT TO SLAUGHTER IT TWO TIMES? {i.e scare the goat so much that the goat felt dead even before the actual slaughtering , out of fear}  (Al-Mu'jam Al-Kabir and Al-Mu'jam Al-Awsat of At-Tabarani through a good chain of transmitters. Majma' Al-Zawa'id, Chapter on sharpening the knife, vol. 4, p. 33.)


it is authentically reported from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him and with his father) that The Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered that the BLADE SHOULD BE SHARPENED AND BE HIDDEN FROM THE ANIMAL.(Related by Ahmad, no. 5598, Section on the Hadiths narrated by the Companions who narrated a large number of Hadiths; and Ibn Majah, no. 3163, Book on the slaughtered animals, Chapter on when you slaughter do it kindly.)
 
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: 'Allah's Messenger forbade the slaughtering that is similar to that of the devil, i.e. cutting the animal's skin without cutting the jugular veins.(Ahmad, vol. 1, p. 289; Abu Dawud, vol. 3, pp. 251-252, no. 2826; Ibn Hibban, vol. 13, p. 206, no. 5888; Al-Hakim, vol. 4, p. 113; and Al-Bayhaqy, vol. 9, p. 278.)



2. Slaughtering the animal with one's own hands is better, but if one does not do so, it is Mustahabb (liked, preferable) for him to be present at the time of slaughtering. Anas (radhi allahu anhu) reported that Allâh's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) sacrificed with his own hands, two horned rams with black markings, reciting the name of Allâh and glorifying Him (saying Allâhu-Akbar). He placed his foot on their sides (while sacrificing). [Sahîh Muslim: vol. 3, p. 1087, no: 4841] 



 
3. It is preferable to make takbeer and tasmiyah when slaughtering. This is due to what is confirmed from Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: "The Prophet sacrificed two horned rams, which were white with black markings. He slaughtered them himself, while saying: "Bismillaah, Allaahu Akbar" (In the name of Allaah, Allaah is the Greatest) and he had his foot placed on their sides. [Reported by al-Bukhaaree (5558, 5564,5575), Muslim (1966) and Aboo Daawood (2794).]




FACING THE ANIMAL TOWARDS QIBLAH IS A SUNNAH



Ahmad (15022), Abu Dawood (2785) and Ibn Maajah (3121) narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) sacrificed two rams on the day of Eid. When he turned them to face towards the qiblah he said: “Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth Haneefa (Islamic Monotheism, i.e. worshipping none but Allaah Alone), and I am not of Al-Mushrikoon .Verily, my Salaah (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists). He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims’ [cf. al-An’aam 6:79, 162-163]. O Allaah, from You and to You, on behalf of Muhammad and his ummah. In the name of Allah and Allah is most great.” Then he slaughtered them. 

The isnaad of this hadeeth may reach the level of hasan as Shu’ayb al-Arna’oot said in Tahqeeq al-Musnad. 

Note: The correct opinion is that it is permissible to slaughter in any direction but it is a sunnah to slaughter facing the animal towards the Qiblah for many reasons. See al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (21/196) and Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (22/477) concerning the etiquette of slaughtering 


EATING THE SACRIFICIAL MEAT IS A RECOMMENDED (MUSTAHAB) SUNNAH 




Eating from one's sacrifice is Mustahabb (liked, preferable). It is also Mustahabb for him, who performs a Udhiyah, not to eat before he offers his sacrifice; he should break his fast with the meat of his sacrifice the prayer. The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam): "Let every man eat from his sacrifice." [(Saheeh) by Shaikh al-Albanî in Sahîh a-Jamî no: 5349]



Allah says ‘Then eat thereof and feed therewith the poor who have a very hard time.’ (Sura Hajj verse 28)




NOT EATING ANYTHING UNTIL ONE PRAYS THE EID SALAH IS ALSO A SUNNAH




Buraidah (radhi allahu anhu) reported: "The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) would not go out on the day of breaking the fast (Eid al-Fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice (Eid al Adha) he would not eat until he had returned [from Salât]" 



This is related by at-Tirmidhî and Ibn Majah and also by Sunan Ad-Dâramî who added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice." [Sharah as-Sunnah, vol. 4, p. 306, footnote no: 1. Shaikh al-Albane said, its isnâd is Sahîh, al-Mishkât, vol: 1, p. 452, no: 1440]




DIVIDING THE MEAT INTO 3 PARTS - RECOMMENDED NOT FARDH



Dividing the meat into three is Mustahabb (liked, preferable), one-third to keep for oneself, one-third to be given as gifts and one-third to be given in charity.




Allah says ‘Then eat thereof and feed therewith the poor who have a very hard time.’ (Sura Hajj verse 28)

وقال أحمد : نحن نذهب إلى حديث عبد الله ( ابن عباس ) رضي الله عنهما  (يأكل هو الثلث ويطعم من أراد الثلث ويتصدق على المساكين بالثلث ) رواه أبو موسى الأصفهاني في الوظائف وقال حديث حسن 

Imam Ahmad said : we will go with the hadeeth of `Abdullah ibn `Abbas radhiallahu `anhu which said : He should eat one third himself, feed one third to whomever he wants, and give one third in charity.

[Ref: Narrated by Abu Musa al-Asfahani in Wazaif and the shaykh said it is Hasan] 

حديث ابن عباس مرفوعا

There is a marfoo` version of Ibn `Abbas who said :

  ( ويطعم أهل بيته ، الثلث ، ويطعم فقراء جيرانه الثلث ، ويتصدق على السؤال بالثلث )

And he (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) would feed one third to his family, the second third he would feed to his poor neighbours and the rest he gave to those who were asking for it

[Ref: Imam ibn Qudamah in al-Mughni (8/632) said that Hafidh abu Musa al-Asfahani brought this in his book al-wazaif and he graded this to be Hasan. . Shaykh al-Albani said in his Irwa ul-Ghaleel (1160)  قلت : ولا أدري أراد بذلك حسن المعنى أم حسن الاسناد ، والاول هو الاقرب . والله أعلم | and i don't know if the intent of the author was to say hasan via meaning (as a practise of the scholars and muslimeen) or hasan due to isnad and i think the former is closer to the truth wallahu `alam. ]

Note: this Hafidh abu Musa is كتاب ( الوظائف ) هذا هو من كتب أبي موسى محمد بن عمر ابن المديني الحافظ المتوفي سنة 581

This hadeeth or its practise is also attributed to Ibn Mas`ood and Ibn `Umar in مرعاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح 9/244 and the author said quoting 

ولأنه قول ابن مسعود وابن عمر، ولم نعرف لهما مخالفًا في الصحابة، فكان إجماعًا،

and For this is the statement of Ibn Mas`ood and Ibn `Umar and we do not know of any sahaaba who opposed them and for they were agreed upon (the validity to divide the meat into 3 sections if needed) 

See: http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-8862/page-4228

The amazing shaykh `abdul `Azeez at-tarifi hafidhahullah in his work "tahjeel" [ : التحجيل في تخريج ما لم يخرج من الأحاديث والآثار في إرواء الغليل ] says 

قال المصنف (1/263) :
(تقسم - الأضحية - بينهم أثلاثاً. وهو قول ابن عمر وابن مسعود) انتهى.


Shaykh al-Albani said : Ther distribution of the udhhiya meat is between three parts. and this is the statement of Ibn Mas`ood and ibn `Umar. end quote 

Shaykh `Abdul `Azeez at-Tarifi says :

أما أثر ابن عمر:
فأخرجه ابن حزم في "المحلى": (7/270، 271-ط. المنيرية) من طريق وكيع عن ابن أبي رواد عن نافع عن ابن عمر قال: الضحايا والهدايا ثلث لأهلك وثلث لك وثلث للمساكين.
وإسناده حسن، عبد العزيز بن أبي روّاد تكلم فيه، وتكلم ابن حبان في روايته عن نافع، وحديثه يحمل على الاستقامة مالم يخالف.

As for the narration of Ibn `Umar then Ibn Hazam (rahimahullah) recorded it in his Muhallah (7/270-271) from the route of Wakee` from ibn Abi Rawad from Nafi` from ibn `Umar who said the meat/sacrifice is gifted in three parts one/third for your family members one/third for you and 1/3 for the poor 

and the isnad is hasan. `Abdul `Azeez ibn abi rawwad is mutakallim feehi as ibn hibban was skeptical about in the narration from Nafi, however his hadeeth carry upon firmness and no one opposes it. 

As for the narration of Ibn Mas`ood then Sa`eed ibn abi Urubah in Kitab al-Manasik (101) and from him Ibn Abi Shaibah in al-Musannaf (4/1/152) and Tabarani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer  (9/342), Bayhaqi in sunan al-Kubra (5/240) and Imam abu yusuf in his al-athar (126) and ibn Hazam in al-Muhalla (7/270) from Ibrahim from `Alqamah from Ibn Mas`ood radhiallahu `anhu and the narration is like that 

عنه كان يبعث بالبدن مع علقمة ولا يمسك عما يمسك عنه المحرم ثم يأمره إذا بلغت محلها أن يتصدق ثلثاً ويأكل ثلثاً ويبعث إلى ابن أخيه عبد الله بن عتيبة بن مسعود ثلثاً.
وإسناده صحيح.

Another hadeeth recorded by tabrani shows that ibn mas`ood asked a man how did you make/divide it? he said you and your companions ate 1/3rd and 1/3rd was given to the bedouin (poor arabs) 

حدثني مجاهد أن عبد الله بن مسعود بعث مع رجل ببدنه، فقال: كيف أصنع بها؟، قال: كل أنت وأصحابك ثلثاً وابعث إلى أعرابنا ثلثاً وتصدق بثلث.

[Ref: at-tahjeel of at-tarifi 1-182-183 Download the book : http://www.altarefe.com/cnt/books/249]


There are other ahadeeth too which show towards the permissibility of dividing the meat or giving it to the poor 


`Ali said : “Allah's Messenger (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) commanded me to be in charge of his sacrificial animal and asked me to distribute their (meat,) skin and covering sheets (to the poor) and not to give to the butcher anything out of them.” And he (Ali) said, “We used to give the butcher from our own possessions.” 

[Ref:  Bukhaari (1/431), Muslim (4/87), Abu Dawood (1769), Ibn Maajah (3099) and Ahmad (1/79, 123, 132, 154)]

The scholars and the salaf have been practicing dividing the mat into 3 parts. this is not mandatory but favourable and recommended. Calling this a bid`ah is stupid at the very least and retarded at the very max and one deprived of usool and the tools used for istinbaat only deems something like this as bid`ah. Wallahu `alam. 





DIVDING/DISTRIBUTING THE MEAT SACRIFICED ON  BEHALF OF THE DEAD


This section has two major opinions and they are :

The Sha'afi Fiqh says :

As regards the obligation of donating in charity the sacrifice offered on behalf of a dead person, then the jurists  stated that whoever offers a sacrifice on behalf of the dead from his money [dead’s money] or if you are sacrificing on your own (i.e without his/her money), then it is not permissible for him to eat from it. Rather, he should donate all of it because the sacrifice is done on behalf of the dead and it is only with his permission that one can eat from it, and getting his permission now is impossible because he has already died. Therefore, it is an obligation to donate all of it in charity on his behalf, whether the sacrifice is done with a cow, sheep or goat, or camel, and this is the view of the Shaafi’i School of jurisprudence.

The Hanbali Fiqh says :

the sacrifice offered on behalf of the dead may be treated like a sacrifice offered by a live person, one can donate from it in charity, eat from it and gift from it.


It is permissible to act according to any of the above two opinions, Allaah willing, but the Sha`fi opinion is better for it will benefit the deceased more.


STORING THE MEAT IS PERMISSIBLE 



It is preferred that the family who offered the sacrifice eat from the sacrifice, give gifts from its meat and give sadaqa from it. It is permissible for them to store some of the meat. This is taken from the saying of the Prophet (SAW): "Eat, store and give sadaqa.



[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (5569), Muslim (1971), Aboo Daawood (2812) and others from the hadeeth of 'Aa'ishah and that which is found concerning the prohi bition of storing/saving (part of the sacrifice), then it is abrogated. Refer to Fath-ul- Baaree (10/25-26) and 'Itibaar (120-122).]

GIVING MONEY INSTEAD OF A SACRIFICE IS NOT RECOMMENDED AND IS MAKROOH (DISLIKED)



It should be mentioned here that the scholars agree that sacrificing an animal and giving its meat in charity is better than giving its value in charity. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) chose to perform sacrifice and he did not do anything but that which is best and most befitting. This is the opinion of Abu Haneefah, al-Shaafa'i and Ahmad. This refutes the saying of those who say that today people need money more than they need food, therefore it is better to give the money rather then sacrifice an animal. 



Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughnee (11/95): "Indeed The Prophet (SAW) performed the sacrifice as did the rightly guided Khulafa, after the Prophet (SAW). And if they knew that giving sadaqa is better they would have turned to it and enacted it. However giving the sadaqa instead of the Sacrifice leads to abandoning a sun nah which the Prophet (SAW) established."


عَنِ الثَّوْرِيِّ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ، عَنْ سُوَيْدِ بْنِ غَفَلَةَ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ بِلَالًا يَقُولُ: «مَا أُبَالِي لَوْ ضَحَّيْتُ بِدِيكٍ، وَلَأَنْ أَتَصَدَّقَ بِثَمَنِهَا عَلَى يَتِيمٍ أَوْ مُغَبَّرٍ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ أُضَحِّيَ بِهَا» قَالَ: فَلَا أَدْرِي أَسُوَيْدٌ قَالَهُ مِنْ قِبَلِ نَفْسِهِ أَوْ هُوَ مِنْ قَوْلِ بِلَالٍ

Abd al-Razzaaq narrated in al-Musannaf (8156) from al-Thawri, from ‘Imraan ibn Muslim, from Suwayd ibn Ghaflah that he said: I heard Bilaal say: To give its price (i.e., the price of the udhiyah) in charity to an orphan or a debtor is dearer to me than sacrificing it. He (the narrator) said: I do not know whether Suwayd said it by himself or it is the words of Bilaal. [Classified Saheeh by ibn hazm in al-Muhalla] 


T
his command implies obligation and the prohibition implies that it is forbidden, according to the most correct opinion, because these are absolutes with no exceptions. If a person deliberately takes something (from his hair or nails), he must seek the forgiveness of Allaah, but he does not have to pay any fidyah (penalty) and his Udhiyah is still valid.


Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

If it is a matter of choice between udhiyah and paying off debt on behalf of a poor person, then paying off the debt is better, especially if the debtor is a relative .  [from Majmoo‘ Fataawa wa Rasaa’il Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 13/1496 ]

Thus the scholars say that since qurbaani is a sunnah muakaddah' then if one has a Muslim brother or some relative in debt, or if someone needs financial assistance as an urgent life saving means, then it is better to direct the money here instead of Udhiyah' but otherwise, Udhiyah' is better.




ACTIONS THAT ARE HARAAM 


Selling any part of the sacrificed animal is haraam 

Scholars agree that it is not permissible to sell anything from the sacrificed animal's meat, skin or fat. The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:



"Whoever sells the skin of his Udhiyah, there is no Udhiyah for him (i.e. his sacrifice is not counted)." [(Hasan) by Shaikh al-Albanî in Sahîh al-Jamî, no: 6118]




Selling or gifting anything of the sacrificed animal to the butcher (kasaai' in regular urdu) 





The butcher should not be given anything from the sacrifice, by way of reward or payment. Ali (r.a) said:

"The Messenger of Allâh (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) commanded me to take care of the sacrifice and to give its meat, skin and raiment (covering used for protection) in charity, and not to give anything of it to the butcher as a compensation. He said: 'We will give him something from what we have " [(Agreed upon). Sahîh Muslim, vol: 2, no: 3019]

"It was said that it is permissible to give the butcher something else  as a gift. It is also permissible to give some of it to a Kafir, if he is poor or a relative or a neighbor, in order to open his heart to Islam." [Fatawa Shaikh Abd al-Azîz Ibn Bâz, see al-ifta website]


Note: The skin and other parts which are not consumed , should be given in charity :

Narrated: Ali : The Prophet (s.a.w) offered one hundred Budn as Hadi and ordered me to distribute their meat (in charity) and I did so. Then he ordered me to distribute their covering sheets in charity and I did so. Then he ordered me to distribute their skins in charity and I did so.

[Sahih Bukhaaree, Chapter No: 26, Pilgrimage (Hajj), Haeeth 776]





Fasting on the two Eids is Haraam 



Fasting on the two days of Eid is haraam, as indicated by the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade fasting on the day of al-Fitr and al-Nahr.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1992; Muslim, 827

It is also haraam to fast on the days of al-Tashreeq which are the three days after Eid al-Adha (the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijjah) because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The days of al-Tashreeq are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allaah.” Narrated by Muslim, 1141.



Abu Dawood (2418) narrated from Abu Murrah the freed slave of Umm Haani that he entered with ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr upon his father ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas. He offered them food and said, “Eat.” He said, “I am fasting.” ‘Amr said: “Eat, for these are the days on which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would tell us not to fast and forbade us to fast, and these are the days of al-Tashreeq.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood. 



But it is permissible to fast on the days of al-Tashreeq for a pilgrim who does not have a hadiy (sacrificial animal). It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah and Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them) said: No one was allowed to fast on the days of al-Tashreeq except one who could not find a hadiy. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1998. 



Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said: It is permissible for those who are doing Hajj qiraan or tamattu’, if they cannot find a hadiy, to fast these three days so that the Hajj season will not end before they fast. But apart from that it is not permissible to fast on these days, even if a person is obliged to fast for two consecutive months; he should not fast on the day of Eid and the three days following it, but then he should continue his fast. [Fataawa Ramadaan, p. 727.]



THE RULING OF ABSTAINING FROM CUTTING NAILS AND HAIR APPLIES TO ONLY THE ONE WHO IS GOING TO SACRIFICE OR INTENDS TO SACRIFICE WHETHER HE BE THE HUSBAND OR WIFE. ANYONE WHO WANTS OR INTENDS TO SACRIFICE SEPARATELY FOR HIM OR HER SHOULD ABSTAIN FROM CUTTING AND SHAVING. 





Umm Salamah (radhi allahu anha) related that the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: "If you see the Hilaal (new moon) of Dhul-Hijjah, and any one of you wants to make a sacrifice, then he should not cut (anything) from his hair and his nails." and in one narration he said: "...then he should not take (cut) anything from his hair, nor from his nails, until he performs the sacrifice." [Saheeh Muslim] 

As per one opinion of the majority of the scholars, These instructions of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) are unconditional, and unavoidable because his instructions constitute to obligation and his prohibition signifies Haraam. Therefore, anyone who does any of the above-mentioned acts deliberately then he should seek forgiveness from Allah, but there is no report for any compensation for this act of sinning deliberately.

Question : The one who is slaughtering the animal, only he has to abstain from cutting his nails and hair or all of his family members should abstain from these acts as well?

Answer: Please note that only the person who offers a sacrifice is required to abstain  (stay away from) taking from his hair or clip his nails. The member of his household who share with him the reward of the sacrifice are not required to abstain from that, according to the preponderant statement of scholars. The eminent scholar Ibn ‘Uthaymeen may Allaah have mercy upon him detailed this issue by saying ( in al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (7/530))

His (Al-Hijjaawi's) statement “the one who offers the sacrifice” indicates that the people on whose behalf the sacrifice is observed may take from their hair and clip their nails. This is evidenced by the following:

First: The apparent indication of the Hadeeth denotes that forbiddance is applicable to the person who offers the sacrifice. Thus, only the one who provides for the family is forbidden to take from his hair or clip his nails. The rest of family members are not forbidden to do so, because the Prophet , limited the ruling to the one who offers the sacrifice, which indicates that such ruling is not established for the other members whom the sacrifice is made on their behalf.

Second: The Prophet , would offer a sacrifice on behalf of his family members. It was not transmitted that he would order them not to clip their nails or to take from their hair or skin. If this was forbidden for them, he would have ordered them not to do it. This is the preponderant opinion on this issue.....


Fatwa source : http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=116043 ,

Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

With regard to the family of the one who is going to offer the sacrifice, they are not subject to any obligations, and it is not forbidden for them to remove anything from their hair or nails, according to the sounder of the two scholarly views. Rather the ruling applies only to the one who is going to offer the sacrifice, the one who has bought the sacrificial animal from his own wealth.

[Fataawa Islamiyyah, 2/316. ]

Scenario # 2 : Does the prohibition apply upon the man of the household even if the wife and others from the family intend to have a sacrifice for their own self ?



Ans : There are some women who delegate their brothers or sons to do the sacrifice on their behalf so that they can cut their hair during the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. This is not correct as the ruling applies to the one who is making the sacrifice, whether or not he or she delegates someone else to do the actual slaughtering. The prohibition does not apply to the person appointed (as a butcher because any random stranger can also become a butcher for you but); rather the prohibition  applies to the person who wants to offer a sacrifice on behalf of himself, as is indicated by Hadeeth. As for the person who is doing the sacrifice on behalf of another, whether because of a death-will or because he has been assigned to do so (as a paid butcher, slave, servant, etc then), the prohibition does not apply to him.

It is obvious that this prohibition applies to the one who is offering the sacrifice and does not extend to his wife or children, unless one of them is sacrificing on his or her own behalf. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam used to slaughter on behalf of ‘the family of Muhammad’, yet it is not reported that he forbade them to remove anything of their hair or nails.


No differentiation is made between men and women with regard to this ruling. If a woman wants to offer a sacrifice on her own behalf, whether she is married or not, then she should refrain from removing any hair from her body or cutting her nails, because of the general meaning of the texts which state that that is not allowed.

[Source : Fatwa of Shaykh Saleh al-Munnajid, Islamqa.com]


Ruling If the hairs or nails cause harm to a person: 



Like a broken nail, or a hair on the place of wound, then he is permitted to cut it. It should be mentioned here that both men and women can wash their hairs, because the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) only forbade cutting of the hairs and not washing them. There is no harm in washing the head, or scratching it, even if some hairs may fall out. 



It is incorrect to assign someone else to perform the sacrifice because you want to cut your hair and nails and stay away from the restriction


This practice is completely wrong because the ruling applies to the one who offers the sacrifice, whether or not he sacrifices with his own hands. The person who is delegated to sacrifice on behalf of someone else does not have to abide by this ruling. Also, this ruling applies only to the one who slaughters a sacrifice and not on the whole family, unless if separate Udhiyah is slaughtered for everyone. Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) used to offer sacrifice and include all his family members but no report is found saying that he forbade his family members to cut hairs or nails. 



If a person cuts his hairs or nails because he did not intend to perform a sacrifice and then later decides to slaughter an Udhiyah (in the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah)?



Shaykh Saleh al-Munnajid says : In this case he should refrain from cutting them from the time he intends to perform a sacrifice. In the case, when a person does not intend to perform a sacrifice but he later plans to perform Hajj, then he should also not cut his nails or hairs because the cutting is only permitted in times of necessity. But if he is performing Hajj Tamattu (a form of Hajj, whereby the Hajj and Umrah are combined but separate Ihraam is made for Umrah and a new Ihraam is made for the Hajj), then he should trim his hairs after the Umrah because it is a part of the ritual. 



Wisdom Behind this Prohibition : 



is so that he may resemble those in Ihraam in some aspects of the rituals and the one who sacrifice may draw nearer to Allah by offering his sacrifice. "...and do not shave your heads until the Hadee (sacrifice) reaches the place of sacrifice..." Therefore, he leaves his hairs and nails along until the time when he offers his sacrifice in hope that Allah will save him form the Fire. And Allah knows best.



Note: The things that are forbidden for the person who wants to offer a sacrifice are reported in the hadeeth quoted above. It is not forbidden for him to wear perfume or to have intercourse with his wife or to wear sewn garments and so on . And Allah knows best.



Innovations and Haraam actions taking place on or during Eid 



1. Shaving the beard 

2. Shaking the hands of non mehram men/women 

3. Imitating Non muslims in celebrating islamic festival 

4. Mingling with the opposite sex out of joy 

5. Women displaying their beauty to Non Mehrams. 



Visit http://sunnahonline.com/ilm/sunnah/0015_page7.htm For proofs and explanation on the above 5 points. 



Sunnan to be Followed on the day of Eid al Adha 



Note the sunnah of Eid al-Fitr are different in some aspects. Please search for the title : " 12) SOME OF THE SUNAN OF EID AL FITR SUMMARIZED " here : http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2012/08/how-to-pray-the-eid-prayer.html




1 – Doing ghusl before going out to the prayer. 

It was narrated in a saheeh hadeeth in al-Muwatta’ and elsewhere that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to do ghusl on the day of al-Fitr before going out to the prayer-place in the morning. Al-Muwatta’ 428. 

A man once asked ‘Alî – Allâh be pleased with him – about taking a full bath (ghusl). He replied, “Wash every day if you want.” The man said, “No, what I mean is the ghusl.” ‘Ali replied, “Al-Jumu’ah (Friday), the Day of ‘Arafah, the Day of Al-Nahr (sacrificial slaughter, ‘Eid al-Adhâ) and the Day of Al-Fitr (the ‘Eid following Ramadân).”

Al-Bayhaqî, Al-Sunan Al-Kubrâ, hadîth #6343. In Irwâ Al-Ghalîl, under hadîth #146, Shaykh Al-Albânî graded its chain of transmission sahîh and said this is the best evidence for the recommendation to bath on the two ‘Eid celebrations

2 - Eating after the prayer of Eid Al Adha 

Buraidah (radhi allahu anhu) reported: "The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) would not go out on the day of breaking the fast (Eid al-Fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice (Eid al Adha) he would not eat until he had returned [from Salât]

This is related by at-Tirmidhî and Ibn Majah and also by Sunan Ad-Dâramî who added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice." [Sharah as-Sunnah, vol. 4, p. 306, footnote no: 1. Shaikh al-Albane said, its isnâd is Sahîh, al-Mishkât, vol: 1, p. 452, no: 1440]

3 - Takbeer on the day of Eid Al Adha should be loud and should start from the day of Arafah until the last day of Eid i.e the 13th of Dhul Hijjah 

Takbeer should be loud :

In al-Musnad it is narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are no days on which good deeds are greater or more beloved to Allaah than on these ten days, so recite much Tahleel (saying Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah), Takbeer (saying Allaahu akbar) and Tahmeed (saying al-hamdu Lillaah),” or similar words.

It was narrated that al-Waleed ibn Muslim said: I asked al-Awzaa’i and Maalik ibn Anas about saying Takbeer out loud on the two Eids. They said, Yes, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to say it out loud on the day of al-Fitr until the imam came out (to lead the prayers). 

It was narrated in a saheeh report that ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulami said, “They emphasized it more on the day of al-Fitr than the day of al-Adha.”. Wakee’ said, this refers to the takbeer. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 3/122/ 

Takbeer starts and Ends at : 

In the case of Eid al-Adha, the takbeer begins on the first day of Dhu’l-Hijjah and lasts until sunset on the last of the days of tashreeq. 

 Al-Bukhaari mentioned in his Saheeh, in a mu’allaq report, that Ibn ‘Umar and Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with them both) used to go out to the market-place on first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah, reciting Takbeer, and the people used to recite Takbeer because of their Takbeer. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab and his son ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with them both) used to recite Takbeer during the days of Mina in the mosque and in the camps, and they would raise their voices until Mina echoed with their Takbeer. It was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and a group of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) used to recite Takbeer following each of the five prayers from Fajr on the day of ‘Arafaah until ‘Asr on the thirteenth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah. This applies to those who are not on Hajj; for those who are on Hajj, they should concentrate on their ihraam and recite the Talbiyah, until they throw the stones at Jamarat al-‘Aqabah on the Day of Sacrifice (Yawm al-Nahr); after that they may recite Takbeer. The Takbeer should start with the first stone thrown at the Jamarah mentioned. If the pilgrim recites the Takbeer along with the Talbiyah, that is OK, because Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “Some would recite the Talbiyah on the Day of ‘Arafaah, and they were not told off for doing so, and some would recite Takbeer and they were not told off for doing so.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari). But it is better for the one who is in ihraam to recite the Talbiyah and for the one who is not in ihraam to recite Takbeer on the days mentioned.

Meaning Takbeer is given during all the days of Eid :) 



Wordings of the Takbeer : 



It was narrated in the Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaybah with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he used to recite takbeer during the days of tashreeq: 

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa Allaahu akbar, Allaah akbar, wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is most Great, there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most great, Allaah is most great, and to Allaah be praise). 

It was also narrated elsewhere by Ibn Abi Shaybah with the same isnaad, but with the phrase “Allaahu akbar” repeated three times. 

Al-Mahaamili narrated with a saheeh isnaad also from Ibn Mas’ood: “Allaahu akbaru kabeera, Allaahu akbaru kabeera, Allaahu akbar wa ajallu, Allaahu akbar wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great indeed, Allaah is Most Great indeed, Allaah is most Great and Glorified, Allaah is Most Great and to Allaah be praise).” See al-Irwa’, 3/126. 



To know more details on Takbeer visit : http://islamqa.info/en/ref/10508



4 – Offering congratulations 

It was narrated that Jubayr ibn Nufayr said: When the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) met one another on the day of Eid, they would say to one another, Taqabbala Allaah minna wa minkum (May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you.)” Ibn Hajar said, its isnaad is hasan. Al-Fath, 2/446. 

5 – Adorning oneself on the occasion of Eid. 

It was narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a cloak which he would wear on the two Eids and on Fridays. Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah, 1756, 

Al-Bayhaqi narrated with a saheeh isnaad that Ibn ‘Umar used to wear his best clothes on Eid. 

With regard to women, they should avoid adorning themselves when they go out for Eid , because they are forbidden to show off their adornments to non-mahram men. It is also haraam for a woman who wants to go out to put on perfume or to expose men to temptation, because they are only going out for the purpose of worship. 

For more details please Visit : http://islamqa.info/en/ref/36442

Eid prayers for women are Sunnah or Fardh?

Please visit the link : http://islamqa.info/en/ref/26983

Conclusion: A very important and encouraged Sunnah 

Ruling on Women going for Eid Salah

Please visit this Link: http://islamqa.info/en/ref/49011

Conclusion : It is very highly recommended to go out for Eid prayer.

ANSWERS TO SOME COMMON OBJECTIONS RAISED 



Q1) Can we use an Animal which has been castrated (testicles removed). These are called as Khassi in India/pakistan. 

Ans. Prophet (s.a.w) brought 2 large horned castrated (( موجوءين )) rams with spots black and white in colour and sacrificed one of them and said: Bismillah, Allahu Akbar and slaughtered for ALLAH from Mohammad and the family of Mohammad, and sacrificed the other then said: Bismillah Allahu Akbar O my lord this is from Mohammad and from his ummah who witnessed with you tawheed and witnessed me proclaming

Ref: There are many references for this, but i shall enlist only 5 and they are :

1. saheeh ibn majah, hadith no.2548 (saheeh)
2. irwa al ghaleel,4/351 (hasan)
3. musnad abu ya'laa 1792 (hasan)
4. Al-Fatuhat al- Rabaniya , 5/21 (hasan)
5. Majmoo Al-Zawaid (hasan isnaad)

To know more references please visit http://www.dorar.net/enc/hadith?skeys=%D9%85%D9%88%D8%AC%D9%88%D8%A1%D9%8A%D9%86+&xclude=&degree_cat0=1


An-Nawawi, may Allaah Have mercy upon him, said, “The animal whose testicles are contused or removed is a valid sacrifice, as maintained by the Shaafi‘i scholars, and this is the sound opinion”

Q2)  Can we celebrate the Eid on different dates staying in one country because of oour differences or because we sighted the moon differently? 

Ans)This is indeed sad. I highly recommend every reader to read the explanation given here on this topic. It is a beautiful explanation and it suffices all doubts 


Q3) Why do some people celebrate 4 days of Eid al Adha thereby sacrificing their animal on the fourth day? Why do they differ from the majority?

Ans) First of All, It is better to hasten to offer the sacrifice after the Eid prayer, as the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to do, then the first thing he would eat on the day of Eid would be meat from his sacrifice because :

It is narrated that Buraydah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not go out on the day of (Eid) al-Fitr until he had eaten, and he did not eat on the day of (Eid) al-Adha until he came back, then he would eat from his sacrifice.  [Al-Zayla’i narrated in Nasb al-Raayah (2/221) that Ibn al-Qattaan classed it as saheeh, Also in Ahmad (22475)]

Secondly the days of slaughtering or sacrificing are disputed over. The narrations supporting 4 days will be enlisted below. Whereas the narrations supporting the view of 3 days are detailed under the next question . 


Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Zaad al-Ma’aad (2/319): 

‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The days of sacrifice are the Day of Sacrifice (yawm al-nahr - the day of Eid) and the three days after it (called as the days of tashreeq which are 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul Hijjah) .” This is the view of the imam of the people of Basra, al-Hasan; the imam of the people of Makkah, ‘Ata’ ibn Abi Rabaah; the imam of the people of Syria, al-Awzaa’i; and the imam of the fuqaha’ of hadeeth, al-Shaafa’i (may Allaah have mercy on him). It was also the view favoured by Ibn al-Mundhir. The three days are specified because they are the days of Mina, the days of stoning (the Jamaraat) and the day of al-Tashreeq. It is forbidden to fast on these days. It was narrated via two isnaads, one of which supports the other, that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “All of Mina is the place of sacrifice, and all the days of al-tashreeq are days of sacrifice.” [The hadeeth was classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 2476 : Here you will find all the ahadeeth on this topic discussed in great details explaining how one supports the other and etc, However manny other muhaddiths have declared these ahadeeth to be weak , see : http://forum.mohaddis.com/threads/%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%86%DB%8C-%DA%A9%DB%92-%D8%AA%DB%8C%D9%86-%D8%AF%D9%86-%DB%81%DB%8C%DA%BA%DB%94%D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8-%D8%B2%D8%A8%DB%8C%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D9%84%DB%8C-%D8%B2%D8%A6%DB%8C-%D8%AD%D9%81%D8%B8%DB%81-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%DB%81.3147/#post18351]

Hence as per the above opinion of Ibn Qayyim and the ahadeeth which support this opinion, the days which are permissible to sacrifice are 

1) Day of Eid     (1st day)
2) second day    (11th Dhu’l-Hijjah)
3) third day       (12th Dhu’l-Hijjah)
4) Fourth day     (13th Dhu’l-Hijjah)

There are some more narrations supporting the days of sacrifice to be on the day of eid (yaw al nahar) and the days of tashreeq ( 11, 12 & 13th - 3 days after the day of eid) such as :

1. It is narrated from Abu Huraira (r.a) and Abu Sa'eed (r.a) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said "Sacrifice on all the days (Ayyaam) of Tashreeq (11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhul Hijjah) [Kitaab al Illal(3/38) of Abu Hatim ar Raazee, Sunan Al Bayhaqee (9/296) , Al Kaamil (6/2396) of Ibn Adiyy, Nasb ur-Rayah (4/213) and Meezanul Ei'tidaal (2/486)]

2. Another marfoo' report (mursal saheeh though but other shawahids support this) says that the Prophet (s.a.w) said "Slaughter in the days of Tahreeq" [Musnad Ahmad (4/82), Musnad Ahmad with Fath ur Rabbaanee (13/94,95, 11/122), Sunan Al Bayhaqi (9/295-296), Mu'ajam Al Awsath of Imam Al Tabraani with Majma'a al Zawaa'id (3/251) - See Sahih Jami' Al Sagheer (4/176 no. 4413 or 4537), Sahih Ibn Hibban (6/62 no. 3843 or 3854), Mujamaa Al Kabeer (no. 1583 of Al Tabraanee) 

3. Another Marfoo' report : "Slaughter in the days of Tahreeq" [Mawaarid al Zamaan, Kitaab al Hajj, Baab : Maa ja fee waqoof bi- Arafah wa Mudhdalifah (1/249), Al Bayhaqee (9/292-296), Kashf al Astaar an Zawaa'id Musnad al Bazzaar (2/27), Musnad Al Bazzaar from Nasb ur Raayah (3/61) and in Kitaab ul Hajj (4/212-213)]

4. Imam Tabraane and others have reported " The prophet (s.a.w) said " All the days of Tashreeq are the days of sacrificing" [Mu'ajam al Kabeer of Al Tabraanee (2/144), Sunan Daraqutni (2/544), Sunan Bayhaqee (2/296), Kitaab al Ma'arifah wa Sunan of Bayhaqee and Musnad Bazzaar as mentioned in Nasb ur Raayah (3/61) and (4/212-213), Kashf ul Astaar an Zawaa'id Musnad Al Bazzaar of Haythami : Chapter, When is the time for making the sacrifice (2/61)]

5. Imam Al Daraqutnee reports a hadeeth traced back to the prophet (s.a.w) wherein he (s.a.w) said " Let there be slaughtering of the sacrifice in all the days of Tashreeq" [Sunan Daraqutnee 2/544 and Sunan Al Bayhaqee (9/296)]


Note : the references may seem to be similar, but the sanad isn't. Also there are some objections laid down by some muhadith regarding the above narrations being either mursal, munqati or having some other slight weakness [See the jarh here : http://forum.mohaddis.com/threads/%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%86%DB%8C-%DA%A9%DB%92-%D8%AA%DB%8C%D9%86-%D8%AF%D9%86-%DB%81%DB%8C%DA%BA%DB%94%D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8-%D8%B2%D8%A8%DB%8C%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D9%84%DB%8C-%D8%B2%D8%A6%DB%8C-%D8%AD%D9%81%D8%B8%DB%81-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%DB%81.3147/#post18351 .

Nevetheless, some scholars have approved of the above narrations. Your may visit the following link to see the detail takhreej of all the above narrations thereby making them saheeh or Hassan 
http://www.mediafire.com/?s2427hdormgnfm5

Some Narrations from Taba`een who have adhered to the view of 4 Days :

1. Hasan al-Basri said: After the Day of  Eid-ul-Adha there are 3 days of slaughtering.

[Ahkam al-Quran  lil Tahawi 2/206 hadith: 1577 and its sanad is Sahih.]

2. ‘Ataa bin abi Rabah said: Slaughtering is till the end of the Days of Tashreeq.

[Ahkam al-Quran  lil Tahawi 2/206 hadith: 1578 and its sanad is Hassan.]

3. ‘Umar ibn Abdul ‘Aziz said: Al-Adha is the Day of Nahr and 3 days after it (Slaughtering is on the day of Eid and 3 days after it.)

[Sunan al-Kubra Bayhaqi 9/297 and its sanad is Hassan.]

Shaykh Zubayr `Ali Zaee says : "Imam Shafi’i and some scholars of Ahle Hadith hold the view of 4 days for slaughtering . Some scholars refer back to the hadith of Hazarat Jubair bin Mutam (r.a) but it is weak."


Summarizing some of the scholars who opted for this view are :



1. Ibn Qayyum 
2. Imam of the people of Basra, al-Hasan Basri (r.h) 
3. The imam of the people of Makkah, ‘Ata’ ibn Abi Rabaah (r.h)
4. The imam of the people of Syria, al-Awzaa’i (r.h) 
5. The imam Al-Shaafa’i (r.h) [Bayhiqi (5/296-298), Neel Al-Awtaar (3/490]
6. It was also the view favoured by Ibn al-Mundhir.
7. Imam Dawood Al Zuhree [Muhalla 8/46]
8. 'Umar ibn 'Abdul Azeez 
9. Ibn Katheer 
10. Imam Al Shawqaani (r.h) [Nayl al-Awtaar 3/490]
11. Imam Nawawi [Sharh Muslim 7/128)]
12. Abdullah ibn 'Abbas (r.a) from the way of Hasan al Basree (see Ibn Hazam Muhalla 7/275)
13. Sulaymaan bin Moosa (r.h) 
14. Imam Makhool
15. Others 

So as per the tahkeeq of Ulemas, the marfoo` narrations or Mawqoof narrations that validate 4 days are weak , though some ulemas argue otherwise yet the stronger position sides towards the former view i.e it has weakness. So those Muslims who reside in countries or places where the majority are inclined towards the 3 days concept then it is better for them to stick to the majority, especially when the narrations speaking about 4 days are weak. wallahu `alam

Q4) What about those who sacrifice on the first three days? or consider sacrificing to be on the first 3 days only and not the 4th? Do they have any evidence for this stance?

Yes, this view is also correct and there are umpteen narrations to support this. Moreover according to some scholars this view of 3 days is the stronger stance compared to the other opinion of 4 days ,Nevertheless, the days are : 



أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو أَحْمَدَ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ الْمِهْرَجَانِيُّ، أنبأ أَبُو بَكْرٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ الْمُزَكِّي , ثنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْعَبْدِيُّ، ثنا ابْنُ بُكَيْرٍ، ثنا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا كَانَ يَقُولُ:الْأَضْحَى يَوْمَانِ بَعْدَ يَوْمِ الْأَضْحَى. قَالَ: وَثَنَا مَالِكٌ أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ: الْأَضْحَى يَوْمَانِ بَعْدَ يَوْمِ الْأَضْحَى


1- Abdullah bin Umar (r.a) said: Al-Adha is two days after the day of al-Adha.

Narrator added:  and it is narrated from Malik that he heard Ali bin abi Talib (r.a) said : Al-Adha is two days after the day of al-Adha. 

[Sunan kubra lil bayhiqi 9/500 or 9/297, Muwatta malik 2/487 Hadeeth 1071, Saheeh]

عن أنس قال : الأضحى يوم النحر ويومان بعده

2- Anas (r.a) said " The day of sacrifice (Al Adha) is the day of Nahar (day of eid al adha) and two days After it 

[ المحلى بالآثار ابن حزم  Muhalla Ibn Hazam  7/377 , Also see sharh Muslim 7/128, [Ahkaam al-Quraan lil Tahaawi: 2/206 H. 1576, Hadeeth Saheeh]


3- Sayyidunah Abdullah bin Abbaas said: "Al-Nahr is (additional) two days after the day of Nahr, and doing it on the first day is better"


[Ahkaam al-Quraan lil Tahaawi: 2/205 H. 1571, Chain Hasan]

4- Sayyidunah Ali said: "The Sacrifice is three days"
[Ahkaam al-Quraan lil Tahaawi: 2/205 H. 569, Chain Hasan]

5- Sayyidunah Abu Hurayrah said: "The Sacrifice is three days"
[Al-Muhalla: 7/77 Mas'ala: 982, with reference from Ibn Abi Shaybah, Chain Hasan]

In the beginning the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had forbidden people from storing the meat of Sacrifice for more than three days, and later this command was abrogated. This initial prohibition also can be the proof of saying that the opinion of three days of sacrifice is more correct.

Imaam Maalik and others have also given precedence to this view, wallahu a'lam


The above narrations are also Saheeh and some of the scholars who support the opinion of day of sacrifice being only 3 days are:

1. Imam Abu Hanifa (r.h) 
2. Imam Maalik (R.h) 
3. Imam Ahmad (r.h)  
4. Some others 

See: Nayl Al-Awtaar (3/490) ,Bidaa’a Al-Sanaa’a (5/73) Tabeen Al-Ahqaaq (6/4) , Al-Dar Al-Mahtaar (5/222) , Al-Baab ( 3/233)

Conclusion : 

The ahadeeth and athaar that advocate the view of 4 days are weak except few narrations from the Taba`een See : http://forum.mohaddis.com/threads/%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%86%DB%8C-%DA%A9%DB%92-%D8%AA%DB%8C%D9%86-%D8%AF%D9%86-%DB%81%DB%8C%DA%BA%DB%94%D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8-%D8%B2%D8%A8%DB%8C%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D9%84%DB%8C-%D8%B2%D8%A6%DB%8C-%D8%AD%D9%81%D8%B8%DB%81-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%DB%81.3147/#post18351


, Yet many scholars vouch for this view, b
ut on the other hand those who vouch for the opinion of 3 days are more close and more rightly in bein saheeh as they have many ahadeeth in their support as well and this according to many scholars is the right stance and the stronger opinion. But due to the difference of scholars on this issue one could vouch for any of the two opinions though the stance of 3 days is more correct and safer to opt for.  By safer i mean that if you reside in a country or place where the overwhelming majority is known to follow 3 days of sacrifice, then muslims should stick to the majority and avoid fitan and disputes, especially when the narrations of 4 days are weak. This tahkeeq can be studied in detail from the publications of Shaykh zubair ali zaee and shaykh Ghulam Mustafa Zaheer.


Q5) Why do some people Differ from the majority in their locality (i.e instead of sticking to 3 days they sacrifice on the 4th day)? 

Indeed sticking to the majority or the Muslims is a praiseworthy act. There is a hadeeth wherein  Abu Daawood relates (1/307) that 'Uthmaan (raa) prayed four rak'ahs at Minaa, so 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood criticized him saying:

 "I prayed two rak'ahs with the Prophet (saws) and two rak'ahs with Abu Bakr, and two rak'ahs with 'Umar, and two rak'ahs with 'Uthmaan in the beginning of his rule, then he completed it (i.e. by praying four rak'ahs). After that the ways became divided with you all. So I hope from these four rak'ahs, that two of them would be accepted."

Then Ibn Mas'ood prayed four rak'ahs. So it was said to him: You criticized 'Uthmaan, yet you prayed four? So he said: "Differing is evil (or differing is even worse)" 

[Its chain of narration is Saheeh (authentic), and something similar to this is related in the Musnad (5/155) of Imaam Ahmad, from Abu Dharr (raa).]

Note: Uthmaan (r.a) had justified reasons to do as he did. When the Sahaabas (a.s) differed concerning this act of his, He (r.a) even clarified this position of his in a public address saying "Gentlemen, when i reached Makkah i wished to stay here and i have heard the Prophet (s.a.w) saying " If a person decides to stay in a city he should offer his prayer in full" [Ref: Musnad Ahmad Hanbal Vol.1 pg 62] 

Also It was narrated from Ubaida: Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said (to the people of 'Iraq),


"Judge as you used to judge, for i hate differences (and i do my best ) till the people unite as one group, or i die as my companions have died."


[Sahih Al Bukhari - Book 62, Hadith 58]

Another Excellent example is : 



Abdullah reported: A man was reciting a verse which I had heard differently from the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. I took his hand and brought him to the Messenger of Allah and he said, “Both of your recitations are good.” Shu’bah said, “I think he said: Do not differ, for indeed, the nations before you were destroyed due to their differences.”

[Sahih Bukhari, Book 41, Number 593]


Aisha reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said to her, “O Aisha, had your nation not recently left ignorance, I would have had the Ka’bah demolished and rebuilt to include the portion which had been missing, and I would have made it level with the ground with two doors, one towards the east and the other towards the west; then, by doing so it would have been upon the foundation laid by Abraham.”

[Sahih Bukhari, Book 26, Number 656]

Ibn Taymiyyah said, “He left that which was better in his view so as to avoid putting people off. Similarly, if a person thinks that it is better to say the benediction (speech, lecture, talk, wishes) out loud but he is leading in prayer people who do not like it, or vice versa, and he does what is in accordance with their view, then he has done the right thing… The Prophet, peace be upon him, moved from the better option to another option because this would achieve harmony and soften people’s hearts, as he said to Aisha: Were it not that your people have only recently left behind ignorance, I would have demolished the Ka’bah and given it two doors; in this case, he left what was better for the sake of harmony and softening hearts.”

[Majmu’ Al-Fatawa 22/268, 26/91]

Another incident is when Imam Al-Shafi'y (may Allah be merciful to him) wrote in his book Al-Risalah:


"The sahabah are superior to us in all knowledge, intelligence, faith, virtue, and every means through which knowledge or guidance is attained. Indeed, their opinion is more beneficial to us than our own is to us."

(Al-Fatawa; vol. 4, pp. 157-158)
 
There are many more reasons pointed out by scholars justifying the act of Uthman (r.a). Nevertheless he is our ameer ul momineen and a khulafa e rashideen thereby his acts or hukum become a sunnah for us for the prophet (s.a.w) said "After me follow my sunnah and the sunnah of the righteous khalifas" 

Sticking to the majority in every case is not right because Haqq is the one that should be allied with. However in this case since the narrations validating the position of 4 days are weak, it is better to stick to the majority and avoid fitnah.


I personally believe: 

Prophet (s.a.w) said " Actions are by intentions and one shall get what he intended for " [Al Bukhari] 

A person should try his best not to stir fitnah or hatred or do any such act which causes his fellow Muslims to oppose each other except when it is required (such as stopping an innovation, or clearing their misconception) 

One must explain politely to his fellow Muslims the sunnah and this matter. Allah ordered Musa and Haroon (a.s) to talk politely with Firaun (the accursed) , then how can a Muslim be rude to his brother or fight with him over Fiqhi issues?


LIST OF WEAK AHADEETH ON THIS TOPIC :


Warning for those who copy-paste or narrate a hadeeth without verification : 

Aboo Qataadah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) relates that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “Beware of reporting too much from me.  He who reports from me, then let him not say anything, except that which is true.  So he who attributes to me that which I did not say, then let him take his place in the Fire [Saheeh: Related by Ibn Maajah (no. 35), at-Tahaawee in al-Mushkilul-Aathaar (1/172) and others.  It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah (no. 1753). ]

Even the Sahaabas verified ahadeeth before transmitting or acting upon them no matter how small the deed is. For e.g the case of Umar ibn Khattab (r.a) verifying the hadeeth of "knocking the door thrice and then leaving when unanswered" from abu Sa'ed al Khudri (r.a) as reported in Al Bukhaari [ See: Volume 8, Book 74, Number 262 ]

Prophet (s.a.w) is reported to have said in the Muqaddama [Preface] of Sahih Muslim that " It is sufficient lying that a man speaks of (all that) he hears" 

List of weak Ahadeeth :

(I)Hadhrat Zaid bin Arqam (May Allah be well pleased with him) narrates, a companion of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) asked Him:  O Prophet of Allah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)!  What is sacrifice?  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) replied:  It is the practice of your father Ibrahim (May peace be upon him).  Then he asked: What is there for us in it O Prophet of Allah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)?  The Holy Prophet replied: There is a reward for every hair.  Again he asked:  O Prophet of Allah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)! Then what is the wool for? The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) replied: There is a reward for every little strand of wool.

Ans : 

Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3247 - Graded Da'eef : Isnaad da'eef Jiddan due to the presence of a Narrator in the sanaad by the name Abu dawood whose name is Nafee bin Haaris and he is a Matrook (abandoned) narrator. Another similar narration is mentioned in Sunan Al Bayhaqi 9/261 hadith 1485 and Also in Shua'ib al Eemaan, Musnad Ahmad  and in all the narrations Nafee bin Haaris is there 

(II) Narrated 'Aishah: That the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said: "A human does no action from the actions on the day of Nahr more beloved to Allah then spilling blood. On the Day of judgement, it will appear with its horns, and hair, and hooves, and indeed the blood will be accepted by Allah from where it is received before it even falls upon earth, so let your heart delight in it.

Ans : 

Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1493 : Graded as Da'eef . Also in Sunan Ibn Majah Chapter on Sacrifices : Reward for the sacrifice : Hadith no. 3126 :  Also See Silsilah Ahadeeth Al Da'eefa 526. the narrator abu al-muthana whose name is sulaiman bin yazeed is weak. 

The following have graded him to be weak : 

1. Abu Haatim Al Razaa'i said " Munkaral Hadeeth - Laysa b Qawee" Rejected and not strong 

2. Abu Haatim bin Hibban Al Bastee said " His narrations aren't trustworthy and one should not take from him" 

3.Ibn Hajar Asqalaani said he is "Da'eef" 

4. Al Daraqutni said "Da'eef" 

5. Ibn Hibban also said not trustworthy and his narrations are not Hujjah in Majrooheen 2/505 and Ibn Hibban also quoted Abu Hatim's hukum in his book Al Thiqaat

The following ta'adeel can be found on him :

1.  Abu 'eesa al Tirmidhi said " He is the narrator of Hassan hadeeth in matters of Udhiyah" 

2. Al Dhahabhi said " Thiqah" 

See : http://www.islamweb.net/hadith/display_hbook.php?hflag=1&bk_no=195&pid=442346

Jarh' on this Hadeeth : 

1. Shaikh Albaani said in Da'eef Al Targheeb (671) that is is weak . And also said Da'eef in his version of Da'eef Tirmidhi (1493) and Da'eef Ibn Majah (613). Also in Da'eef Jami'a 5112

2. Shaikh Zubair Ali Zaee under the tahkeeq and takhreej (darrus salaam version of) Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah 

3. Imam Al Tirmidhi says in his Book AL Ilaail al Kabeer (244) quoting Imam Bukhaari that this is a Mursal narration 

4. Imam tirmidhi said in sunan al tirmidhi that this is hasan ghareeb 

5. Ibn Al-Malqan said in Badr al muneer 9/273 that this narration is disputable "Feehi Nazar" 

6. Imam Al Bayhaqi has also agreed to Imam Bukhari's view and said "Mursal" in Sunan Al Bayhaqi 9/261 

7. Ibn Hibban said in Majrooheen 2/505 that Al Muthanna is not trustworthy and his narrations are not a Hujjah

8. Imam Al Mizzi in Tahzeeb Al Kamaal 22/11 quoted Abu Haatim and Ibn Hibban and agreed to the weakness of the raawi as well as the hadeeth. 

9. Ibn 'Al 'Arabi said in عارضة الأحوذي that :ليس في فضل الأضحية حديث صحيح 4/3 - Laisa fil fadheelal Udhiyah hadeeth saheeh - There is no saheeh hadeeth on the virtue of Udhiya


Ta'deel on this Hadeeth : 

1. Mubarakpoori said in Tuhfatul Awaadhi 4/429 that this is hassan 

2. Ibn Hajar has said the hadeeth is Hassan in Takhreej Mishkat al Masaabeh 2/132

3. Imam Al Suyooti has said the hadeeth is Hassan in Jami'a Sagheer 7949 

Conclusion : The correct opinion falls in the court of those who have classified this hadeeth to be weak 

(III) أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ الْأَصْبَهَانِيُّ، أنبأ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ , ثنا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الزَّعْفَرَانِيُّ، ثنا يَزِيدُ بْنُ هَارُونَ، أنبأ سَعِيدُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، ثنا عَمْرُو بْنُ خَالِدٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ آبَائِهِ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ , أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ لِفَاطِمَةَ: " يَا فَاطِمَةُ قُومِي فَاشْهَدِي أُضْحِيَّتَكِ , أَمَا إِنَّ لَكِ بِأَوَّلِ قَطْرَةٍ تَقْطُرُ مِنْ دَمِهَا مَغْفِرَةً لِكُلِّ ذَنْبٍ , أَمَا إِنَّهُ يُجَاءُ بِهَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ بِلُحُومِهَا وَدِمَائِهَا سَبْعِينَ ضِعْفًا حَتَّى تُوضَعَ فِي مِيزَانِكِ ". فَقَالَ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيُّ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ أَهَذِهِ لِآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ خَاصَّةً فَهُمْ أَهْلٌ لِمَا خُصُّوا بِهِ مِنْ خَيْرٍ , أَوْ لِآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَالنَّاسِ عَامَّةً؟ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: " بَلْ هِيَ لِآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَالنَّاسِ عَامَّةً "


Ali Radhiallohuanhu narrates that Rasullullah Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam said: “O Fatima! Come and witness your sacrificial animal being slaughtered for surely, by the first drop of blood that lands on the ground, there will be forgiveness for you for every sin. Listen! It will be brought with its blood and flesh. It will then be placed in your scale of deeds multiplied by 70 times.” Abu Sa’id Radhiallohu ‘anhu asked: “O Rasullullah! Is this reward specifically for the family of Muhammad Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam for they are worthy of having good set aside specifically for them, or is it for the family of Muhammad Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam and the Muslims in general?” Rasullullah Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam said: “it is specifically for the family of Muhammad Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam and the Muslims in general.”

[Ref: Sunan Al Kubra 9/476 (Shamilah Version), Targheeb wa tarheeb of Al Mundhari Vol. 2, Page 100] 

Ans : 

This hadeeth has been classified as weak by : 

1. Bayhaqi classified this to be weak in Sunan Al Kubra 9/283 sayin Amro bin Khaalid is weak and in Vol.5, Pg. 239 he said Amro is Matrook 

2. Albaani said this is Mawdoo' in Da'eef al Targheeb 675

3. Hadeeth is Graded weak because Amro bin Khaalid al Quraishi is weak - itihaaf al khaira al mahra by al Busayri 5/321

(IV) حَدَّثَنَاهُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ بَالَوَيْهِ، ثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ شَبِيبٍ الْمَعْمَرِيُّ، ثَنَا دَاوُدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ، ثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ قَيْسٍ الْمُلَائِيُّ، عَنْ عَطِيَّةَ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِفَاطِمَةَ عَلَيْهَا الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ: «قَوْمِي إِلَى أُضْحِيَّتِكَ فَاشْهَدِيهَا فَإِنَّ لَكِ بِأَوَّلِ قَطْرَةٍ تَقْطُرُ مِنْ دَمِهَا يُغْفَرُ لَكِ مَا سَلَفَ مِنْ ذُنُوبُكَ» قَالَتْ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، هَذَا لَنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ خَاصَّةً أَوْ لَنَا وَلِلْمُسْلِمِينَ عَامَّةً؟ قَالَ: «بَلْ لَنَا وَلِلْمُسْلِمِينَ عَامَّةً»
 

It is narrated from Abu Sa’id Radhiallohu ‘anhu that Rasullullah Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam said “O Fatima come and stand by your sacrificial animal and witness it being slaughtered for surely, by the the first drop of blood, all your sins will be forgiven.” She asked: “O Rasullullah! Is this reward specifically for us, your family, or is it for us and the Muslims as well? He replied: “It is for us and for the Muslims.”

[Ref: Mustadrak Hakim Vol. 4, Page 247 (shamila version) , Also in Musnad Bazzar]


Ans :

1. Albani said this is Munkar in Da'eef al Targheeb Pg. 674 , Also in Silsilah Ahadeeth al Da'eefa 6828 

2. Hafidh Ibn Hajar Asqalaani in Takhlees al Habeer Vol. 4, Page 1493 said " Abu Haatim said from his father that Atiya is Munkaral Hadeeth. i.e Hadeeth is weak 

3. Imam Al Shawqani in Nayl al Awtaar Vol.5 Page 196 said " the sanad has Atiya in it therefore it is very weak.

(V) أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ الْفَقِيهُ، ثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ قُتَيْبَةَ، ثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، ثَنَا النَّضْرُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْبَجَلِيُّ، ثَنَا أَبُو حَمْزَةَ الثُّمَالِيُّ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ: " يَا فَاطِمَةُ قَوْمِي إِلَى أُضْحِيَّتِكَ فَاشْهَدِيهَا فَإِنَّهُ يُغْفَرُ لَكِ عِنْدَ أَوَّلِ قَطْرَةٍ تَقْطُرُ مِنْ دَمِهَا كُلُّ ذَنْبٍ عَمِلْتِيهِ وَقُولِي: إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ " قَالَ عِمْرَانُ: قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، هَذَا لَكَ وَلِأَهْلِ بَيْتِكِ خَاصَّةً فَأَهَلَّ ذَاكَ أَنْتُمْ أَمْ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ عَامَّةً؟ قَالَ: «لَا بَلْ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ عَامَّةً»



Rasullullah Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam said “O Fatima come and stand by your sacrificial animal and witness it being slaughtered for surely, by the the first drop of blood, all your sins will be forgiven. The he (s.a.w) said "Indeed, my prayer, my rites of sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah , Lord of the worlds. No partner has He. And this I have been commanded, and I am the first [among you] of the Muslims.[Quran 6:162-163] . Imraan said: “O Rasullullah! Is this reward specifically for the family of Muhammad Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam for they are worthy of having good set aside specifically for them, or is it for the family of Muhammad Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam and the Muslims in general?” Rasullullah Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam said: “it is specifically for the family of Muhammad Sallallohu Alaihi Wasallam and the Muslims in general. 

Ans :

The following have graded this to be weak (mainly because of the raawi  : Abu Hamzah Al Thamaali]

1. Al Dhahabi in Al Mahzab, Vol. 8, Pg. 3869 : Weak Sanad (Raawi is Da'eef Jiddan) 
2. Al Bayhaqi in Sunan Al Kubra Vol.5, Pg. 239 : Not Strong 
3. Ibn Malqan in Badr al Muneer Vol.9 Pg. 313 has said : Da'eef 
4. Al Haythami has said in Majmoo' Al Zawaid : Abu Hamza is weak 
5. Ibn Hajar in Al Daariyah Vol. 2, Pg. 218 : Isnaad Da'eef 
6. Albaani said in Silsilah Da'eefa 528 : Munkar 


Source : Link 
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